Basically problems with thyroid are usually ones that have an effect on the thyroid gland, which is a gland in the front portion of the neck. It is shaped like butterfly and has a vital part in regulating many processes related to metabolism all over the body.
This gland that is just below the Adam’s apple is wrapped around the windpipe. The thin area made up of tissue in the middle of the gland is called the isthmus and it joins the two thyroid lobes on each of the sides. The thyroid gland uses iodine to create important hormones. T4 or Thyroxine is the main hormone that comes out of this gland. After the hormone is delivered through the blood to the tissues of the body, a small part of T4 that comes from the gland is converted to triiodothyronine or T3 which the hormone that is active. A feedback mechanism linked to the brain regulates the working of the thyroid gland.
When the level of this hormone is low, a hormone called thyrotropin-releasing hormone or TRH is produced and this in turn is the reason for the release of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland and these results in more release of T4. Since the thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus, disorders of these tissues can also affect thyroid function and cause thyroid problems.
Here Are Some Disorders Associated With Thyroid:
Goiter: This is normally a condition when the thyroid gland is enlarged. This could be due to any number of causes like hypothyroidism or some other problem with the thyroid.
Hyperthyroidism: This is a condition when there is an excessive production of the thyroid hormone. This often manifests itself in the form of weight loss that was not intended, tremors, quicker heart rate, nervousness, intolerance to higher temperatures, and increase in perspiration, fatigue and problems with concentration.
Hypothyroidism: This happens when the gland does not produce the right amount of thyroid hormone. This could occur due to problems related to the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland itself or the hypothalamus. The symptoms of this manifests itself in the form of poor concentration, constipation,dry skin, intolerance to cold temperature, weight gain that cannot be explained, pain in the joints and depression.
Thyroid cancer: This kind of cancer is more commonly found in grown woman than males. About two thirds of the cases are found in people within the age of 55 years. The prognosis and survival rate for this cancer is pretty high. More so when cancer is diagnosed in the earlier stages.
Thyroid nodules: These are lumps are masses that occur within thyroid gland and could be due to tumors that are benign, or benign cysts or also very rarely due to thyroid cancer.
Treatment for disorders related to thyroid:
Normally such disorders are treated using medications but in some instances, surgical treatment can also be adopted. The medications can be used to act as a substitute for the missing hormone in case of hypothyroidism. Related medications for managing the symptoms for hyperthyroidism are also given.
Sometimes, a larger sized goiter or a nodule that is hyperfunctioning in the gland can be removed surgically. Surgery could also be needed when there is a possibility of cancer. The gland is removed and synthetic hormone is given to the person instead.
The good thing is that most disorders related to thyroid can be managed with treatment and are normally not life threatening.